Posted on: September 22, 2021 Posted by: admin Comments: 0


The Buddha is a teacher, a guide, he shows the way to reform the mind so that each person turns to the right Dharma, practices virtuous actions to end suffering.

Buddhism is a religion built on the moral foundation of society, aiming at the mission of reforming the mind, calling for the practice of a moral life, leading to enlightenment and liberation from samsara. This is proved even in the Theravada sutras (the Nikayas or Ahammas), the Buddha only preached the path leading to the holy life, leading to the attainment of right knowledge. The World-Honored One’s advice to kings, wise men, and to ordinary people for everyday life, in essence, does not go beyond the pure path.

The ideal of turning the holy king

Buddha interested in ending suffering and creating happiness and peace for human beings. In the Samyutta Nikāya, after having converted the first sixty disciples, he instructed his disciples to travel for the happiness, for the well-being of gods and humans: “Bhikkhus, travel for for the happiness of the masses, for the welfare of the masses, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, for the happiness, and for the welfare of gods and humans.” [1]. He was an enlightened teacher, so there were many kings and great ministers who came to consult and ask the Buddha to teach, an opportunity for him to transform and open their wisdom. Among those great disciples, King Pasenadi and Tan Ba ​​Sa La (Bimbisara) came to him with reverence, for the sake of the Dharma and asked the way. Thereby, he did not teach any king what to do to expand his dominion and conquer new territories. But the Buddha taught those kings to guide the way, to practice good dharmas, and to regard them as great benefactors.

In the Sutra of the Wheel-turning King of the Lion King, the Buddha told about the Holy King who always used the right Dharma to rule the country, conquering the four worlds with full of treasures: “Once upon a time, bhikkhus, there was a King. The Wheel-turning Holy King named Dalhanemi (Perseverance in Mindfulness), is a dharma king who rules the country with the Dharma, conquers the four worlds, rules over the lands, and is full of the seven treasures. He has all seven treasures, that is, a precious chariot, a precious elephant, a precious horse, a jewel, a precious woman, a treasured householder, and the seventh is a treasured general. He had more than a thousand princes, strong, powerful, subduing foreign enemies. This one reigns over this earth to the sea border, using the righteous Dharma to rule the country, without using a staff, without using a sword.” [2].

The Buddha showed only five dharmas that increase longevity

For Buddhism, virtue is the foundation, important quality of a person and comes from concrete deeds.

We can picture a Wheel-turning-King as the one who drives the wheel of dharma, respects the dharma, relies on the dharma, rules according to the dharma for the sake of the world’s splendor. In particular, this king possessed seven treasures such as the seven holy talents in Buddhism, including: a treasure car in the air as a modern weapon; treasured homeowners like having a good manager, meeting all the king’s needs; The treasured general is the one who controls the four armies; precious women like having a beautiful and talented wife; the treasure statue with the pair of tusks conquers all animals; treasure horses can travel thousands of miles, walking on water as if walking on earth; The main jewel is the Mani pearl in the king’s bun. Thus, in order to become a Wheel-turning Saint King or to become a true king, one must rely on the right Dharma, worship the Dharma, respect the Dharma, admire the Dharma, take the Dharma as a standard and criterion, and use the Dharma to protect the people.

In fact, it should be clarified that: In the history of mankind, there has never been a Wheel-turning Saint King. The Wheel of the King is just an ideal, not a reality. The seven treasures indicate current and changing circumstances. It was just an ideal model and convention for military medics to keep as the standard to rule the country and build an ideal society. The purpose of the Buddha’s teaching of the Holy King is to talk about the doctrine of impermanence and change of circumstances and times. That principle is the teaching of Buddha before entering Nirvana: “Bhikkhus, this is my message to you: All formations are impermanent, work hard to liberate yourself, soon the Tathagata will pass away.” [3].

Virtue is an important foundation

In another aspect, in the Minor (predecessor story), the Buddha taught about the qualities required of a true king, ruling the country by abandoning all evil paths, not violating the Ten Kings of Law and not violating the Ten Kings’ Laws. Always act righteously. These are the ten virtues of a wise man: “Giving, benevolence, virtue, justice, friendliness, meekness, mildness, patience, repentance, compassion, are the ten virtues.” [4]. The Buddha emphasized the fact that the good or bad of the people depends on the conduct of their ruler. He set out ten virtues for the monarch to practice, aiming to build an ideal society which is essentially a moral reform in itself, leading to a peaceful society.

For Buddhism, virtue is the foundation, important quality of a person and comes from concrete deeds. According to the Buddha, the essence of virtue does not come from family inheritance but from the actions of each person: “Acting as a thief, acting as a soldier, acting as a priest, and acting as a king. [5]. Once the monarchy has virtue, the state is virtuous, then the happiness condition of all citizens is confirmed and guaranteed. In the Sub-sutta 334 adapted the image, if a monarch is virtuous and rules in accordance with the law, even the fruit will increase its sweetness. [6].

The Buddha found a way to liberate sentient beings by going against the deep, hidden roots of the unwholesome mind in each person.

The Buddha found a way to liberate sentient beings by going against the deep, hidden roots of the unwholesome mind in each person.

This is also evidenced in the previous stories of Buddha such as: Sandhibheda stories, Ayakuta stories, Cuntani stories, stories of precepts to the king… all recorded past lives, he was a king specializing in practicing the Bodhisattva path to rule the country. peace of mind with the righteous law and virtue. In the story of the precepts to the king, after the Buddha reassured and praised King Kosala (Kasola) about the righteous and fair trial of a lawsuit, it was a good deed and the way to the gods. The Buddha continued to tell the story of two virtuous kings, Brahmadatta and Mallika, both kings who spent their lives doing good deeds and doing meritorious deeds after their death and were reborn in the heavenly world. King Brahmadatta himself was the predecessor of the Buddha, throughout his life he took the righteous Dharma to practice: “Conquer anger with non-anger, overcome unwholesome by good, overcome chasm with charity, overcome falsehood with truth.” [7]. Thus, the Buddha’s teaching only deals with the social ethical perspective, taking the cultivation of body and mind as the basis for the benefit of all sentient beings, towards a virtuous life.

Buddha’s mind is equal to everyone from the king to the masses. The Blessed One interacted with kings and officials as with great donors. However, in the relationship between the state and its citizens, the Buddha also gave teachings to encourage disciples and people to fulfill their responsibilities and support the state to build a prosperous society. The attitude of commitment to act for the right thing is mentioned in the Central Sutra, on the conversation between citizen Dhananjani and Mr. Sariputta with the topic related to the duties of citizens towards the king and is endorsed by the Venerable Master. lamented: “He who does what is right for kings and does what is right, he is better off.” [8]. For great donors like Anathapindika [9], Upali [10] and the general Siha [11] … after taking refuge in the Three Jewels and becoming active Dharma protectors, the Buddha still encouraged them to continue to perform the good deeds they had done before and was praised by him: “Whoever planted a garden and planted a forest, who who build bridges and culverts, dig wells for drinking water, those who give houses, these people day and night, their merit always increases.” [12].

Taking moral cultivation as the root

Buddha’s Teachings for a community to help them be stable, actually comes from a moral foundation and takes that as a basis. In the Mahaparinirvana Sutra, the Vajji people in Vesali were taught by the Buddha the seven non-rotting dharmas at the temple of Sarandada: “…I teach the Vajji these seven non-regressive dharmas… maintained among the Vajji…the Vajji will prosper, not decline.” [13]. After that, the Vajji people followed the Buddha’s teachings and became prosperous. Later, King Ajatasattu of Magadha wanted to conquer the Vajji people and said to himself: “I am determined to conquer these Vajji people, although they are powerful and powerful; I decided to weed the Vajjians; I will destroy the Vajjians.” [14]. The king sent the great deity Vu Xa (Vassakara) to consult the Buddha on this matter, but the Buddha did not directly answer. He wanted to confirm with the great minister Vu Xa by asking Ananda about the Vajji people who are practicing the seven non-regressive dharmas that are flourishing and not diminishing. These seven dharmas are taught by the Buddha in the Long Sutra and the writer would like to summarize the main ideas including: Vajji people often gather and gather in large numbers; gather in the concept of solidarity, disperse in the concept of solidarity and work in the concept of solidarity; not promulgating unenacted laws, not rescinding already promulgated laws, living up to tradition; venerate, respect, pay homage, make offerings to the Vajji elders and obey their teachings; no kidnapping and forcing Vajji women and girls to live with them; venerate, respect, pay homage to, and make offerings to the temples in Vajji; protect, protect, and properly support the Arahants in Vajji.” [15]. The Buddha himself confirmed that as long as the Vajji people maintain the seven non-rotten dharmas, the Vajji people will prosper, not decline. Later, the reason for not being able to maintain these seven non-rotten dharmas, the land of Vajji fell into the hands of the king of Magadha and this was determined by the great minister Vu Xa when he asked the Buddha: “Venerable Gotama, Ajatasattu Vedehiputta (A Sa The) The king of Magadha cannot defeat the Vajji in battle unless he uses diplomacy or sedition…” [16].

In the history of mankind, no Holy King has ever appeared.  The Wheel of the King is just an ideal, not a reality.

There has never been a reincarnator in human history…

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