The lowly or the dark wins right where the capacity of self-reflection, mindfulness and awareness of each person.
“Once, the Buddha came to Ba-kí-sau, in the Ngac mountain, Bo forest, Loc Da garden. At that time, Venerable Xale Tu said to the monks:
– Dear friends, there are four types of people in the world. What are four? Or there is a class of people who are really unclean inside but don’t know for themselves, don’t know as they really are inside. Or there is a class of people who are really unclean inside but know for themselves that there is uncleanness inside. Or there is a class of people who are truly undefiled inside but don’t know for themselves, don’t know for themselves that there’s really no uncleanness inside. Or there is a class of people who are truly undefiled inside and know for themselves, knowing as they really are, that there is no blemish on the inside.
“Sir, if a person is really unclean inside but doesn’t know for himself, doesn’t know that he’s actually unclean inside, then among humans, this person is the most lowly. If a person is truly unclean on the inside, but knows himself as he really is, and knows that he is indeed unclean inside, then among men, this person is supreme. If there is a person who is truly undefiled on the inside but does not know himself, does not know as to be that he is truly undefiled on the inside, then among humans, this person is the lowest. If there is a person who is truly undefiled inside and knows for himself, knowing that he is truly undefiled on the inside, then among men, this person is supreme.”
(The Middle Ages A-hamunclean product, unclean business, number 87 [trích])
An unclean mind is a dirty mind, with many afflictions of greed, anger, delusion, conceit, doubt, evil views, etc., thoughts that create suffering in the present and fall into the evil realm in the future.
The first class of people have impurity in their mind without knowing it themselves. Because we don’t realize that our mind is unclean and its harmful effects, we don’t worry about practicing, don’t try to get rid of it. These people live a life in afflictions, at death are not peaceful, in the next life are reborn in the three evil paths. Therefore, this class of people the Buddha called lowly.
The second type of person has an unclean mind but knows it himself. By knowing that my mind is unclean, I diligently practice and study, vowing to rely on the Dharma to find a way to purify my mind so that it becomes pure. Seeing clearly that he still has many limitations, he should always be humble and diligent, purifying the defilements for a pure mind. If the right perception and practice of the Dharma, the defilements of the mind will be subsided, the defilements will be eradicated. This type of person is called the victor.
Another class of people is because of their good roots for many lives, so their inner mind is clear (with little greed, hatred, and delusion) but they do not know their own mind well. It is this weakness that makes them incapable of reflecting when their senses are in contact with the ceiling, causing greed, hatred, and delusion to arise, and fall into the realm of suffering. This type of person goes from light to darkness, so they are considered inferior.
The last category of people are more perfect, clear inside, and often know their own minds, so when they are in contact with the scene, they are always alert to keep their mind pure. The scriptures use the image as a clean, bright copper plate that is bought and cleaned regularly by buyers, so it is always bright. This type of person now and in the future always lives in peace, so it is called the ultimate victory.
New or good, inferior or supreme is right where the capacity of self-reflection, mindfulness and awareness of each person, that is knowing to keep the mind clean when facing contact objects.