The spirit of reincarnation has brought Buddhism into society, bringing people closer to the good and the beautiful … the ethical values of Buddhism as a catalyst to adjust the consciousness and behavior of people in harmony. harmony between happiness from material prosperity and happiness.
Buddhism was introduced to Vietnam around the early years of AD and quickly assimilated with the local religious culture. Through each period of ups and downs of history, Buddhism is like an underground water source, quietly creeping in and accompanying the Vietnamese people in all areas of social life in both material and cultural aspects. morale.
Today, the world is constantly developing with many achievements in science and technology that have accelerated the development of the economy, culture and society and joined the flow of that development. is developing strongly in the direction of industrialization and modernization. The developed market economy, trade relations with leading economies in and outside Asia have opened up many development opportunities and also created many challenges and difficulties for business. country’s socio-economics.
Facing unpredictable fluctuations of the world economy, affecting the domestic economy, leading to social problems such as unemployment rate, welfare regime, social welfare, and environmental pollution. … With the spirit of entering the world, accompanying the sustainable development of the country, Buddhism has, is and will have activities to contribute to the development of the economy and solve arising problems. as a result of the market economy in order to stabilize social life.
To know more about the specific activities of Buddhism incarnated in the economic field, how the application of views, ideas and teachings of the Buddha to economic activities will bring positive effects. , the student has chosen the topic “Incarnated Buddhism with Sustainable Economy” to do research.
I. The concept of Buddhism incarnate
1. Incarnate Buddhist thought
Turning the pages of Buddha’s history, we will realize that since the Buddha’s enlightenment, during 45 years, although he is a “Master of Heaven” but he chose to live a life of traveling from day to day all over India to teach and save life. When the Sangha was just established with the first 60 Arhats, His Holiness encouraged: “Bhikkhus!… go forth for the benefit of many, for the happiness of the many, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, for the happiness of gods and men. Go, but don’t go two people in the same direction, go one by one, spread the Dharma… Raise the banner of the wise, teach the sublime Dharma, bring about good beautiful to others; That’s it, you’ve completed the mission.”.
Thereby, it can be seen that the incarnation thought of Buddhism has existed since the Buddha’s time in the world. But it was not until the second half of the 2nd century BC that this thought was most clearly expressed in Mahayana Buddhism. Through the image of a Bodhisattva with compassion and equality, the Buddha’s children, including monks and lay people, can, depending on their causes, circumstances, and culture, practice the Bodhisattva path through activities to impart Ethical thought, spirit of compassion, equality, into society in order to make social life better and happier.
In the course of our country’s history, the incarnation spirit of Buddhism was strongly promoted in the Ly Tran dynasty, when the national monks were Buddhist monks such as Do Thuan, Van Hanh, etc., who were monastics. But they participated in politics, discussed with the king about the court, dealing with relations with the North and were ready to devote their strength and intelligence to support the king to help the country fight against foreign invaders, protect the world, and make peace. for the nation. After finishing their work, they returned to the temple, in a quiet room to practice, regardless of the perks and benefits given to them by the court.
Until the early decades of the 20th century, when the whole world began to enter the era of modernization and technology, Buddhism was also facing integration, which means participating in religious activities. stabilize and overcome social problems. New forms of Buddhism appeared with the presence and participation of Buddhism through Buddhist individuals and organizations in all social fields from economy, culture, art, society… to create different styles of Buddhism. Incarnation Buddhism brings positive effects and values in society. At that time, the concept of Buddhism entered the world was studied and defined by scholars around the world. It can be said that it is the process of conceptualizing the thought of entering the world, which from the beginning is expressed in the spirit of compassion, equality and invariable predestination, which brings Buddhist ethical values into the world to benefit others. human life.
2. Incarnate Buddhist Concepts
Based on their point of view, scholars have come up with many different concepts of Incarnation Buddhism (also known as Engaged Buddhism, Buddhism in Life), in English it is called Engaged Buddhism. According to Christopher S. Queen, this term first appeared on the title of a book written by Zen master Nhat Hanh in 1963. that’s the book “Buddhism comes to life”which includes the passage: “Bringing Buddhism into life means embodying Buddhist principles in life, expressing them in ways that are appropriate to the reality of life in order to transform life in the direction of good and beauty. As long as the life force of Buddhism is seen abundantly in all forms of life, then we can say that Buddhism is really present in life.”
From the point of view of Master Nhat Hanh, Buddhism incarnate can be understood with two practical meanings, firstly: bringing the noble principles and ethical values of Buddhism in the scriptures, turning it into principles and methods. daily life motto, suitable to the reality of life, thereby transforming people and society in the direction of good and beauty; Secondly, bringing Buddhist ideas and teachings, individuals, organizations, and forces of Buddhists, including monks and laypeople, to participate in solving existing problems in life. society. This also means that, if it does not contain the spirit of incarnation, does not bring practical benefits to life in any period, space, in any field, Buddhism is just a dry religion. hard if not a dead religion because its existence is completely meaningless.
Ken Jones, in The Social Face of Buddhism (1989) defined it as follows: “Incarnate Buddhism is an application of the social, economic, political and ecological process arising from the Buddhist perspective of life.”
Allie B. King, Western scholar introduced the concept: “Incarnate Buddhism is a contemporary form of Buddhism that actively participates but does not use violence to solve social, economic, political, and environmental problems. At its best, this engagement is not separate from the spirit of Buddhism, but an expression of the spirit of Buddhism.”
Queen commented: “Incarnate Buddhism still retains the main points in its basic teachings: dependent origination, righteous thoughts, compassion, skillful means… However, Incarnation Buddhism is more empathetic to social injustices and samadhis. unwholesome and oppressive regimes that cause human suffering, which in the past were not the main focus.”
Through the views on Buddhism incarnated by scholars, all in all, we can see that Incarnate Buddhism reflects the positive aspect of Buddhism in applying the Buddha’s teachings in a flexible way, flexible in all areas of social life such as economy, culture, art, science… with the aim of alleviating human suffering and insecurities by participating in solving current problems. out in a new context. It is a harmonious combination between the application of the teachings to the practice of inner growth and bringing Buddhism into the world, contributing to the construction of a peaceful and happy society.
II. Economics and Buddhist economics
Economy plays a very important role in the development of a country. It is one of the criteria to evaluate the prosperity of that country through economic growth indicators, people’s consumption indexes and has a direct and significant influence on the living standards of each individual and family. family and society. Since the industrialization and modernization revolution has promoted the development of a market economy, trade and cooperation relations between countries within and outside the region have been active, especially Today, when the world has stepped halfway into the 4.0 technology revolution, the market economy has the opportunity to develop and integrate quickly.
The market economy puts people at the center and promotes personal benefits through material prosperity. Economists will calculate and suggest ways of production to maximize profits for individuals and participants in the economy. In a market economy, people can increase their happiness and satisfaction by shopping and consuming more.
It is the view of measuring happiness by satisfying the enjoyment needs of the market economy that has led to many problems that the whole world is facing, such as climate change, environmental pollution, The gap between the rich and the poor is reflected in the average income of the people, the high unemployment rate leads to an increase in social evils… However, the economy…