Posted on: May 14, 2022 Posted by: admin Comments: 0

The philosophical system of Buddhism carries a great value to life. In which, Buddhist views on people and society act as a guide for those who want to find happiness.

A. Introduction

1. Reason for choosing the topic

The philosophical system of Buddhism carries a great value to life. In which, Buddhist views on people and society act as a guide for those who want to find happiness. The development history of thought in society is associated with the development of people’s awareness of themselves and the world around them. In terms of history, the birth of Buddhism in India more than 2500 years ago is also an inevitable consequence of that development. The study of Buddhism in parallel with other thought systems in the world contributes to clarifying and highlighting the role of Buddhism in human life.

According to the history of world philosophy in general and Indian philosophy in particular, there was an era when people seemed to surrender their spiritual life and development to a certain power outside of themselves.

The West was in the “medieval night” until the V-XV centuries began to collapse and pass through the renaissance period, they had many contradictions about reason and faith, the supreme being is God and The human position is not appreciated.

In India before Buddhism was born, people also believed in the supreme creator who created man until the explosion of the philosophy of self (atman – self individual) instead of the idea of ​​a great self (Brahma). ; along with the birth of the ideology of Non-Brahman (Non-Bramana: Nastika – Samana: Sramana-samana) including Buddhism, opposed to the ideology of Veda (Brahmana: astika). This development of human history creates a new period in which people gradually assert their own position and decide for themselves, giving birth to humanism in the West and Buddhism with the practice emphasizing the tendency towards humanism, self-responsibility replacing the previous fatalism.

The birth of thisism was the foundation for the world’s outstanding development during that period. Because of this importance, the writer chooses to present the topic “Buddhist thought in the Pali Canon on humanism and Buddhist practice education on the basis of Buddhist thought on humanism” to clarify some important points of Buddhist thought on humanism as well as how to apply them to human education.

2. Research objective

Within the framework of the topic, the writer focuses on general research on Western humanism and at the same time clarifies the Buddhist thought on Vanism through the Pali canon. After clarifying the above ideas, the writer emphasizes the feasibility of Buddhist thought on humanism in educating people, points out a number of educational methods based on those ideas, from which it speaks of the role of this thought in human and social development.

3. Limit topics

The research topic is encapsulated in some prominent Western ideas on humanism from the 14th century until now.

As for Buddhist thought on humanism, the topic focuses on the Pali canon system through a number of typical suttas related to humanism as well as human explanations.

Regarding educational methods, the topic talks in a general way about possible educational directions based on the ideas mentioned above. From there, it highlights the role of Buddhist thought on humanism in educating people and society.

4. Research Methodology

The thesis uses a methodology based on the conceptual framework of the Pali canon about human beings as well as the operation of human life. It makes clear why people are considered important in humanism.

The method applied in the study is to study historical documents related to Western humanism, Pali texts. Then compare and contrast to highlight the characteristics of Buddhism about humanism. After finding out the characteristics and basic points of thought, the writer uses a research method based on documents related to education in general and Buddhist education in particular, thereby finding the value of thought studied for Buddhist education.

B. Contents

Chapter I: Humanism and Buddhist Thought on Humanism

1. What is humanism?

Humanism (CNNV) is a major branch of moral philosophy as well as a worldview focused on human interests, values ​​and dignity, promoting humanistic education, and respecting human values. According to CNNV, tolerance, non-violence and freedom of conscience are important principles for human symbiosis.

Humanism, also known as humanism, seeks truth and morality by human means to serve oneself. Thisism promotes human self-determination and rejects supernatural justifications.

2. The cause of the formation of humanism

Linguistically, the term Humanism was first used in the English language around 1806. This concept is transliterated from the German concept of Humanismus (of Latin origin). The term Humanismus has been widely used in Germany since 1806 to refer to the educational program of human qualities in German schools. Since then, in 1856, the German philologist and historian Georg Voigt used the concept of Humanism to talk about the Renaissance cultural movement in the West (XIV – XVI centuries).[1]

In the West, CNNV revived in the 14th century, arguing that education in the liberal arts and ancient Greek literature developed a sense of personal responsibility and the spirit of freedom in the Middle Ages. Humanist ideas were germinated and developed through the journals of European thinkers.

CNNV highlights the renaissance period, which represents a strong reaction against theocracy and religion; claim the right to live freely, the right to enjoy nature for people; affirming the beauty of earthly people with endless possibilities such as freedom and freedom from human bondage in the Middle Ages.

CNNV helped renaissance scholars break away from the classical tradition that underpinned the birth of modern science and influenced its later development.

The development of the term Humanism to this day has included a rather broad content that is often understood with two meanings. The narrow meaning is to refer to “the progressive philosophical, cultural and artistic movement of the Renaissance in Europe (XIV – XVI centuries) aimed at liberating human personality from the constraints and stagnation of the feudalism, scholasticism, and Christian theology. In a broad sense, the concept of Humanism refers to any doctrine, thought movement, culture, art that recognizes and takes “man is the highest being to man” (K.Marx). From here, this concept is widely used and is considered as a value system, a common standard in many fields of many different cultures around the world.


3. Characteristic properties of humanism

CNNV affirms human autonomy, human position, source of truth and correctness. This is also the feature that has the greatest similarity with Buddhist thought, which upholds the central position and human autonomy.

Human experience as the final and only judge. CNNV has some attributes of what is known as the scientific spirit. This feature is enhanced by the ordinary freedom.

4. Buddhist thought on humanism.

Buddhism takes people as the center, emphasizes the role of people in all dependent origination, people decide their own path and results. Therefore, the Buddha’s teachings about man are very important in the Buddhist system of thought. Buddhism’s understanding of humanism is also clarifying humanistic thought and explaining the Buddhist principle for human being as the center of the universe.

4.1.Buddhist Humanism

The Buddhist view of life is a system of Buddhist views and concepts about the origin, nature and structure of human beings, goal orientation, human life attitudes and values ​​in order to liberate people from pit of suffering and depression.

4.1.1.Origin, nature and human structure

According to the Buddhist point of view in the Pali Canon (The Beginning of Humanity Sutra, Volume 2 of the Long Sutras), the origin of the human world originates from the Guangyin heaven, in this heaven their life Born is described as having a life with more advantages: “These kinds of beings are mind-born, nourished by joy, radiate their own light, fly through the air, live in glory.”[2]. After a while, due to arising the desire to taste the sweetness of the earth and then giving rise to craving, the form becomes coarse and ugly, the aura disappears, the world appears, the sun and the moon and time appear. disparate shapes. The scripture also describes different types of food, each time making the beauty of each person become more different, masculinity and femininity form, leading to the formation of sexual desire: “On the feminine, the feminine emerges; In terms of masculinity, masculinity emerges. Women look at men very carefully, men look at women very carefully. Because they looked at each other so closely, sex arose, attachment to the body began. Out of attachment, they do sexual acts.”[3] So, from a ideological perspective, people appear because of craving. Craving (taṇhā) according to the Sutra of Right View (Central Part I) has three types: craving, craving and non-being. It is for this reason that the Buddha taught “The cessation of craving is Nirvana” which the writer will discuss in more detail in the following sections.

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