Posted on: June 30, 2022 Posted by: admin Comments: 0

According to the Buddhist point of view, man is a composite of the five aggregates including form, feeling, perception, action, and consciousness; in which the body belongs to matter; feeling, perception, action, and consciousness all belong to the mind-dharma. This is also consistent with current scientific awareness, recognizing that human beings are composed of body and mind; the physical body and the spiritual mind.


Western educational psychology and modern education have made undeniably great achievements. But not because of that, mankind can forget the serious crises of the past few centuries, all of which are derived from the scientific and technological achievements of the West, so much so that there are people who have the opinion, “If If Western civilization is so often in crisis, it can be said that there are some flaws in its educational system.”

This article briefly introduces the Mind Only theory as a Buddhist psychological system that can contribute to educational orientation and complement the shortcomings of Western educational psychology, which is based on the self-possessed.

Keywords: Western educational psychology, Mind Only study, Buddhist psychology.


Western educational psychology and the modern educational system have unniably great achievements. But it is not for that reason that mankind can forget the severe crises of the past few centuries, all of which come from the achievements of science and technology in the West, to the point where there is an opinion, “If the Western civilization is often in a state of crisis, it can be said that there are certain mistakes in its educational system”.

This article briefly introduces the theory of Mere-Consciousness as a Buddhist psychology system that can contribute to educational orientation and complement the shortcomings of Western educational psychology, which is built on selfish thinking.

Key words: Western educational psychology, the theory of Mere-Consciousness, the Buddhist psychology.

1. Overview of Educational Psychology

According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, education is the transmission of the values ​​and accumulated knowledge of a society. More broadly, it is education that makes a country’s culture and civilization[1]. History also shows that education is the kind of activity that helps human society progress in a positive direction, although not always. At the highest level, education must contribute to the creation of sustainable development for the entire human society[2].

In the past, many educations aim to train the ideal person, but that ideal person also changes with the times and places; That is, there is still no common object of education. Therefore, it can be thought that education must be aimed at helping people discover themselves and develop personality in the synthesis of social relationships.

Around the 15th century of the C.E. era, Western nations made great efforts in educational activities. Not only limited to helping individuals integrate into society, Western education has further goals to train elites with extensive knowledge, solid capacity to build the country, create conditions for conquering nature, contributing to creating prosperity for the community and society. Many European countries have defined educational objectives, content, organization and strategies for the adolescent members of their society; education becomes civic education. Many academic fields were born, emphasizing the spirit of scientific research, in which education research is very important. As a result, many educational theories appeared, especially Educational Psychology, which developed with many different schools.

Buddhist Psychology


Modern Educational Psychology is a sub-discipline of Western psychology, which was originally a subdivision of Philosophy and Biology; It was not until 1879, when Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) established the first laboratory dedicated to the study of psychology at the University of Leipzig (Germany), that Psychology became a separate science.[3]. From the research results of prominent Western psychologists such as Hertbert Mead (1863-1931), Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961), Erich Fromm (1900-1980), Abraham Harold Maslow (1908-1970)… Modern Educational Psychology sub-discipline has also identified one of the main focuses of education as education in humanity.

Educational psychology is concerned with the study of human learning activities. The study of learning processes, both from a cognitive and a behavioral point of view, allows researchers to understand individual differences in the areas of cognitive ability, cognitive development, and cognitive development. , behavior, motivation, self-awareness, self-regulation ability… of learners. Modern educational psychology relies heavily on quantitative research methods, most importantly experimental and measured measures, to improve the quality of performance related to instructional design, classroom management and assessment of learning outcomes, with the aim of facilitating the learning process in different educational contexts throughout the student’s life.

However, when delving deeply into Western theories of Psychology and Educational Psychology, it can be seen that many studies on human psychology only focus on psychological phenomena rather than pointing out the nature of the mind. physical. Shaped at a time when Western science and technology and technology were flourishing, it seemed that all Western psychology theories were built on self-perception and placed faith in the infinite possibility of exploitation. all natural resources to serve the aspiration of human life, is said to be an individual with a permanent self. In addition, the modern educational psychology department has examined theories of human behavior, the process of psychological development of children, adolescents and adults, etc., but still attaches great importance to the application of Psychology. to enhance the effectiveness of teaching and learning with educational content that constantly focuses on the ability to conquer the outside world and promote the need for self-expression.

In general, modern Western Education, Psychology and Educational Psychology have been and continue to build on the basis of thinking about “I”, “mine” and “my self”.[4] – that is, have not yet seen the essence of reality impermanent, no-self – may still contribute to the advancement of a part of human society, but at the cost of continued destruction of nature, the living environment of the entire human race continues to be destroyed. invasion, and many other parts of the human race have to suffer sacrifices and disadvantages. In other words, the goal of contributing to sustainable development for the entire human society is still far away, let alone bringing happiness to the masses.

The great achievements of modern Western education over the past several centuries are undeniable. But surely humanity cannot forget the serious crises of human society during the last few centuries, from the expansionist ambitions that led to colonialism that caused countless human disasters to the civil wars. World wars, from the exaggerated promotion of consumerism to the continued destruction of the environment causing climate change… all come from the West. In the early 70s of the twentieth century, someone questioned the deviation in Western education, possibly the first person being the German-British economist EF Schumacher (1911-1977). In 1973 he wrote in Small is Beautiful that, “If Western civilization is constantly in a state of crisis, it can be said that there are certain flaws in the educational system of the West. it”[5]. However, the introduction of a different educational perspective is not yet easily accessible. In the Preface to his doctoral thesis on Buddhism, the Theory of Humanity through the Pali Canon, author Thich Chan Thien said, “There are few essays that consider Buddhism as an educational path. Even the very popular educational work, “Theories of Humanity” by Calvin S. Hall and Gardner Lindzey, third edition, in 1991, has only one new chapter on “Oriental Psychology” discussing on the Abhidhamma through sixteen pages, as the Eastern theory of Humanity.”[6].

Therefore, the appearance in 1999 of the work Buddhist Psychology of the author Thich Tam Thien and the work of The Theory of Humanity through the Pali Canon by the Venerable Thich Chan Thien through the translation of the translator Tam Ngo are important contributions to the development of Buddhism. making valuable contributions to the re-cognition of the value of modern education, and at the same time promoting further research and elucidation of the value of the nation’s traditional education, because indeed, Buddhism was once a mainstream education in our country.

Buddha – The Timeless Psychotherapist



2. Introduction to Mindfulness Studies

2.1. Overview of Mindfulness Studies

Mind-only study is a system of Buddhist doctrine that presents all phenomena related to living beings and the world in which they exist. What Mind Only describes is the world of man and his environment. In that world, people are the subject and the environment is the object.

Mind-only study shows that all ordinary perceptions of sentient beings about external phenomena are actually just the functioning of the mind. That perception does not reach the true nature of the external world, but only carries the meaning of events that have been modified more or less according to the degree of pollution in the minds of beings; since then the image of the external world has been distorted either by accident or based on the consciously changing attitude of each individual perceives which is the result of the karmic force that each individual has possessed, inherited from time immemorial. . Consciousness-Only implies the perception of external phenomena that sentient beings regard as real as mere images that have been altered by the mind.

This does not entirely mean that the Mind Only School denies the objective existence of the phenomenal world, just…


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