Posted on: August 10, 2022 Posted by: admin Comments: 0

Humans are greedy because of greed, so they are dominated by craving, making our lives go on searching for everything, to satisfy our enjoyment in sensual pleasures. Therefore, we are dominated by craving and engulfed in samsara.


At the time of the Buddha, Indian society was filled with many theories, each of which was an advocated position. Humans are victims of contemporary doctrines, all of which exalt their ego, and their doctrines are sublime. Therefore, people fall into a state of mental crisis because of philosophical doctrines. Buddhism was born to solve these problems. The teaching that Shakyamuni Buddha realized under the Bodhi tree is the doctrine of Dependent Origination. This is the basic teaching, like a thread that runs through the entire system of Buddhist teachings.

Humans are greedy because of greed, so they are dominated by craving, making our lives go on searching for everything, to satisfy our enjoyment in sensual pleasures. Therefore, we are dominated by craving and engulfed in samsara. “Ananda, it is because of not being enlightened, not understanding this Dhamma that sentient beings are now confused like a cocoon, as tangled as a spool, like munja grass and babaja reeds. ) cannot get out of the land of suffering, the evil destination, the lower realm, and birth and death.” [1]. Therefore, learning and understanding the doctrine of Dependent Origination helps to remove the entanglements and misconceptions that have arisen so far. At the same time, helping practitioners understand the nature of things and phenomena from which to have the right thinking and action. Therefore, the teaching of Dependent Origination is very important, helping us to separate from desires and achieve peace and liberation in this present life.

The Principle of Dependent Origination

Dependent origination in the Pali language is paṭiccasamuppāda, where Paticca is the condition; Samuppāda is arising; paṭiccasamuppāda is Dependent Origination which is a dharma that arises when it receives a condition. The principle of Dependent Origination is to present the relationship between cause and effect to give rise to a thing. This principle is explained in two sentences: “Imasmiṃ sati idaṃ hoti, immassuppādā idaṃ uppajjati; Imasmiṃ asati idaṃ na hoti, imassa nirodhā idaṃ nirujjhati” means “When this exists, that is, because of this, that arises. When this does not, then that does not; because this ceases, the other ceases.” These two sentences describe Dependent Origination, i.e. dharmata, and dharmata about the existence of all things in the world. The theorem “When this exists, that is there, because this is born, that is born” means that it is present, because of the relationship that exists, there must be grasping, there must be an element to be born called. pillar law. The second theorem, which describes the necessity of cause and effect in the relation in professional language called dharmata, is the limit, the trajectory, and the limitation of dharmas “When this is not, then that no, because one ceases, the other ceases.”

The doctrine of Dependent Origination is immutable, unchanging in time and space. Dependent Origination operates since sentient beings appear in the world. All Buddhas of the past, present, and future enlightened from the doctrine of Dependent Origination and attained Nirvana.

There were many pagans who came to ask the Buddha about the problems that they thought there was a “born thing?”, there was a born subject “who was born?”, “who was born from?” . When we say, this gives birth to this is the attachment of a subject to indeterminacy, this is called endless paradox. Going to the end did not find out what gave birth to anything. If I say that I was born of my parents, my parents were born from my grandparents and maternal grandparents and traced to the end God. So, from whom was God born? No-one is born with no God, that is, they deny cause and effect, go to nihilism, fall into the two extremes of permanence and annihilation. So, to such questions, the Buddha did not answer because the question was unreasonable. “Venerable sir, who feels? Inappropriate question Tathagata does not answer. But if you ask: World-Honored One, what is the cause of the arising of life? Due to contact, life arises; due to predestined life, craving arises” [2]. All dharmas receive the elements that make up a composite that arise. We often wonder if the chicken gives birth to an egg or does the egg give birth to a chicken? We cannot answer such questions, because it goes round and round with no way out. But if the question is asked, under what conditions the egg gives birth to a chicken? Under the right conditions of fertilization, climate, temperature, and time, the egg hatches into a chick.

People themselves when the five aggregates receive an element, a condition, the five aggregates will give rise to a phenomenon. Therefore, that which receives an element is called the five aggregates. What is born, what is born when it comes into contact with each other is called the five aggregates of clinging. The five aggregates do not create anything. The above two theorems show the simultaneous and necessary nature of Dependent Origination.

The teaching of dependent origination follows the chain of twelve causes and conditions

The doctrine of Dependent Origination is immutable, unchanging in time and space. Dependent Origination operates since sentient beings appear in the world. All Buddhas of the past, present, and future enlightened from the doctrine of Dependent Origination and attained Nirvana.

When we talk about Dependent Origination, we immediately refer to the twelve links of dependent origination. When it is said that “Ignorance is dependent on action”, that is, due to receiving the condition of ignorance that gives rise to formations, the word “Destiny” is the condition. In the sutras, the Buddha defines as follows: “Ignorance dependent on action; predestined practice; knowledge of predestined identity; name and condition of six countries; six conditions of contact; contact predestined life; love life; predestined love; predestined charm; predestined birth; birth, aging, death, sorrow, lamentation, suffering, grief, and brains arise. Thus this whole aggregate of suffering arises.” [3]. Similarly, the Buddha taught the cycle of cause and effect according to the cycle of birth and death, “due to dispassion of greed, the complete destruction of ignorance, the practice of cessation,…” [4]. When the twelve causes and conditions arise, the whole aggregate of suffering arises. When the twelve causes and conditions cease, the aggregate of suffering also ceases. That is Dependent Origination, the presence of one leads to the presence of another and the loss of one also causes the other to disappear. From there, we ask a question, who grasps and what is that condition? It arises when grasping a condition, to which it receives that condition is the five aggregates and that condition is the twelve factors of the doctrine of dependent origination.

Coincidence in mathematics

“Suffering is self-made”, thus means permanent view. “Suffering is made by others”, thus means the cessation of view. Kassapa, abandoning these two extremes, the Tathagata preaches the Dharma along the middle path.”

Ignorance (Avijjā): Ignorance is not understanding the Four Truths, not knowing the cause of suffering and the way leading to the cessation of suffering “not knowing suffering, not knowing the origin of suffering, not knowing the cessation of suffering, not knowing the child path leading to the cessation of suffering. This is called Ignorance.” [5]. Also, on the continuum of karmic consciousness we take a phenomenon that pretends to be the manifestation of karmic consciousness and see it as our self called Ignorance. For example, the ocean is vast, the waves rise, we see the waves of the sea and call that wave the sea. Thus, it is called Ignorance.

Actions (Sankhāra): Actions include “body formations, speech acts and mind actions”. [6]. Actions are also known as karma, including meritorious karma, unwholesome karma and immovable karma.

Consciousness (Vinanāna): Consists of these six bodily consciousnesses: “Eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness, and consciousness.” [7]. Consciousness is also known as karma, which is the accumulation of karma left behind.

Nāma-rūpa: Consists of rupa, feeling, perception, volition, and consciousness. In which, form belongs to mind, name belongs to feeling, perception, formation, and consciousness from which life forms.

The Six Senses (Chabbithāna): Consists of six internal sense bases (eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind sense) and six external sense bases (form, sound, smell, taste, touch, and physical objects).

Contact (Phassa): Is a combination of six senses, six objects and six consciousnesses forming eighteen cognitive factors for consciousness to arise.

Feeling (Venada): Feeling is feeling, the ability to perceive objects. Includes six feelings: “Feeling due to eye contact; life due to ear contact; life due to billions of contact born; life due to loss of contact birth; life due to body contact; Life born of mind-contact is called life.” [8].

Ai (Tanhā): is craving, craving includes “love for form, love for sound, love for scent, craving for taste, craving for touch, craving for dharma; or craving, craving for form, and craving for formlessness.” [9].

Holding (Upādāna): Is grasping, holding, is an act of grasping the object. There are four types of defenses: “Deutsch-hander, ant-handler, precept-hand, and self-determination.” [10].

Being (Bhava): Is a composite of energy left behind by kamma to form a future life. [11].

Birth (Jāti): “Whatever belongs to the species of beings being born, born, born, born, born of the aggregates, accomplished in the bases, is called birth.” [12].

Lao Tzu (Jarāmarana): “Whatever belongs to this class of beings or to another, to this class of living beings, or to another class of living beings, is old, weak, debilitated, losing teeth, graying hair, wrinkled skin, age wither, the faculties are ripe. This is called old age. What belongs to the species of sentient beings is abandoned, destroyed, annihilated, the aggregates perish, the body discards, dies. This is called death.” [13].

Analyzing the factors of 12 causes and conditions, they are all causes and effects that continuously arise for each other with conditions. Because there is a condition of ignorance that formations are present, or a condition of craving that is born and held, because of grasping, accumulates into the energy called becoming, the power of being causes a being to be present, leading to The consequences of suffering are old age, sickness and death. So it goes on and on without stopping. The meditator who does not want to get caught up in this cycle of causes and conditions does not cause the conditioned cause of suffering to arise, that is, to put an end to the root cause of suffering, which is craving and ignorance.

In the teaching of the twelve causes and conditions, the Buddha emphasized the role of ignorance, action and craving, clinging, and existence as the cause and cause of this samsara life, not as a cause that gives birth to a dharma. . The Buddha did not teach that one gives birth to another, nor does cause give rise to another. He taught, in this condition will give birth to a dharma. Ai, clinging, and possessing are the causal conditions that form a new life. This is an important part of the doctrine in Dependent Origination, the Buddha preached about this teaching in order to lead people towards wisdom,…


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