Posted on: August 20, 2022 Posted by: admin Comments: 0

Pure or polluted mind is also a dharma of dependent origination, so for the view of the fully liberated person, considering birth and death with liberation is not different, Samsara and Nirvana are not different.

“With regard to form, which gives rise to a mind of lust, separation, cessation, non-arising of taints, and true liberation of the mind, that is called a bhikkhu who attains Nirvana in the present moment.” [1].

Human life is the face of impacts from external factors with complex interwoven psychological states, but each person has a different perception of the nature of things and phenomena. as action. The desire to be reborn in the realms of victory, happiness, or to give up everything to let you create your own twists and turns, drifting along with the wild and boisterous desires. Or is it the tendency to escape from the deadlocks that the sweetness and danger of modern material life is surrounded to find a little peace, the ethereal, ethereal contemplations of a holy way of life? In this article, we will explore the view of the duality of a reality, namely the category of “Nirvana” and “worldly” according to the thought of Nagarjuna (Nāgārjuna) through the work. Madhyamikasūtra, thereby orienting perception and action in the present life.

1. Relative truth and absolute truth

The world in which we exist, operates with the laws of movement according to pairs of opposite but mutual categories: Beauty – ugliness, light – darkness, existence – non-existence, samsara – Nirvana, … To understand an absolute aspect, it is impossible to ignore the relative properties. Because the absolute is also understood as the negation of relative things, within the scope of human heuristic perception.

In the Middle Commentary, Nagarjuna generalized into two categories of relative and absolute views, within the doctrine of emptiness, based on Dependent Origination and the Middle Way. He classified the cognitive categories in Buddhism into two major divisions: the conventional truth and the ultimate truth: “The Buddhas have the two truths, for the sake of sentient beings preaching the Dharma: One is the worldly truth, the other is the first true truth.” [2] (諸佛依二諦,為眾生說法:一以世俗諦,二第一義諦) [3]. The reason for this generalization is not Nagarjuna’s random creation, but the main ideas he exploited directly from the source of the A-function scriptures along with the Nikāyas and included the thoughts of the Mahayana Buddhists. surplus at that time.

For example, the Poṭṭhapāda Sutta notes: “There are dharmas, Poṭṭhapāda, which I declare to be presented in a non-definitive way. There are dharmas, Poṭṭhapāda, which I have declared and expounded unequivocally.” [4]. In the Arahantasutta it is recorded about an Arahant bhikkhu who did what was to be done, the cankers or fetters were ended: “He knows well, the name in the world, because it is only a name, the It’s also a name.”

In the Ka-A-ham, the Buddha also mentioned the Arahant: “Having left the place of conceit, No more conceited mind; Transcend me, mine, I say is illegal. For me, mine, the mind is completely free of attachments; understand the name of the world, pretending to be equal.” [6]; (已離於我慢,無復我慢心,超越我我所,我說為漏。於彼我我所,心已永不著,善解世名字,平等假名說) [7]. Therefore, Mr. Nagarjuna in the Great Wisdom Commentary explains: “The first meaning means all dharmas, which means all dharma-natures, all discourses, all that are called dharmas or non-dharmas, each of these categories. So all can be analyzed, built or broken. However, for the true dharma preached and practiced by the Buddhas, Pratyekabuddhas, and Arahants, it is inseparable and indestructible. [8].

Thus, it can be seen that the first meaning is the category that the Saints have realized and is beyond all scope of discourse and language of the world. However, because to suit different objects, bases and levels, there is a choice of means of using the Dharma to adapt to the spirit of the body – the contract. Therefore, also in the great wisdom, Nagarjuna has generalized into “Four all herds”: The world of all herds (the teaching means to obey everyone with the aim of leading people towards the Buddhadharma); Antidote to all herds (dhamma only means to prevent certain wrongdoings); The people of all herd (Dharma depending on the different bases of sentient beings, educate them to generate upward mind towards good); The first meaning of all dhammas (dhamma for the purpose of making people see clearly the true nature of all dharmas). Nagarjuna used these four zithers to systematically classify all the Buddha’s teachings, not beyond the meaning that all Buddhadharma “is true, not contradictory to each other”. [9].

This is also the Emptiness or Middle Way that Nagarjuna refers to, and it is through this division that perhaps Nagarjuna has become a prominent scholar. Because before Nagarjuna, the sectarians and the Mahayana were vehemently opposed to each other, one side leaning heavily on reality, the other leaning towards metaphysicalism. Therefore, Nagarjuna explained on the basis of the mysterious unchanging nature of Buddhism and re-systematized Buddhist ideas, which is emptiness – Middle path – Dependent origination.

The Buddha declared:

The Buddha declared: “What the wise man in the world accepts as ‘no’ I also say ‘no’… what the wise man accepts as ‘yes’ I also say ‘yes’… wisdom in life accepts materiality as impermanent, non-permanent, non-permanent, subject to change, at that time I also said ‘yes’… in this life, the bhikkhus have the Dharma (lokadhamma).

The Buddha’s teachings carry the spirit of “Depending on conditions”, that is, depending on the level of difference in the perception of each person, there are teachings suitable for each object. For lay people, the Buddha often advised them to practice the Three Refuges, the Five Precepts, the Ten Good Karmas, to give alms, to make offerings to the Brahmin contemplatives with legally acquired property. In addition, the Buddha also encouraged productive labor for his own benefit to benefit others, even to teach the poorest classes in society, lepers, people, mandarins, pagans, kings, etc.

Because of one simple thing, Buddhism wants to exist and spread the teachings in the world must obey the world, from which to preach the Dharma out of the world. For example, Sutta 347 of Ka-A-Ham, when the wanderer Tu Tham (Susima) came to consult the bhikkhus to achieve “liberation wisdom”, because he did not understand the basic teachings and also did not understand meditation. In Buddhism, questions and doubts arose, he went to the Buddha and the Buddha said: “Whether you know or don’t know, you must first know dharma by yourself, then come to know Nirvana, just like the good deeds. That man was alone in a secluded place, diligently thinking diligently, living without slackness, far from self-view, his mind was skillfully liberated.” [10].

In the Beginning Samsara, the Buddha taught:

In the Beginning Samsara, the Buddha taught: “Starting out is samsara, bhikkhus, the starting point cannot be clearly stated for the cyclic cyclic flow of beings veiled by ignorance, by craving. bind”.

The Buddha taught, first to know the dharma to abide, then to come to Nirvana. How is the legal standing, the text continues to explain: “Buddha told Tu-deep: “…Is it because there is birth, so there is old age and death; not having to leave birth but grow old or die?”…Is it because there is ignorance, so there is practice; Does it not have to leave ignorance to practice?”…“Because there is no birth, there is no aging and death, and it is impossible to leave the cessation of birth but old age and death can cease.”…Because there is no ignorance, there is no volition and cannot leave the old. The destruction of ignorance can be done by practice.”…“If you know this, see it like this, is it the separation of sensual pleasures and the evil dharmas that are unwholesome, until you can fully abide by yourself?”…“World-Honored One. , that’s not so.”… “That is called first knowing the dharma, and then knowing Nirvana, but those good men, alone in a secluded place, diligently think diligently, live without distractions, far away. leaving the self-view, not giving rise to taints, the mind is skillfully liberated.” [11].

When Tu Tham asked the Buddha how to know the dharma of abiding, how to see the dharma of abbot. Then, the Buddha explained about abiding by wisdom, which means that one must first be clear about what is going on in the present world in which they live. Those are the dharmas that are subject to cause – condition – effect for the process of 12 causes and conditions (ignorance, action, consciousness…), they are mutually supportive, one has, so that one has, this one is born so that another. birth. Thanks to this foundation of dharma-wisdom, it is then possible to enter the knowledge of nirvana (the wisdom of liberation). Thus, that is, if we want to be liberated to Nirvana, then in this very present, we must have contemplation and action, there cannot be the fact that a relative, speech, or mind does not practice, do unwholesome things. Good people can be reborn in the good realms, the heavenly realms. But friendly people who do good, speak good words, and have good thoughts, because of that cause and effect, after the breakup of the body, after death, they will be reborn in a good realm, in heaven, in this world, this event can happen. [12]

2. Perception and action

Back to the verse in the Middle Commentary: “涅槃與世間,無有少分別,世間與涅槃,亦無少分別” (Na saṃsārasya nirvāṇāt ki cid asti viśeṣaṇam, Na nirvāṇasya saṃsārāt kiṃ cid asti viśeṣaṃaṃ) [13]. The above verse is translated as: “Nirvana from the world, without the slightest distinction, the world from Nirvana, there is no distinction.” [14]. In which the word “世間” if according to the original meaning in its verse is “saṃsāra” with a broader meaning than “worldly”. Saṃsāra is often understood as the cycle of reincarnation, an endless cycle of birth and death, or a world of mundane life. [15]. As for Nirvana (nirvāṇa; nibbana) describes a state of absence of greed, hatred, and delusion; cool, happy state. Why is it that between these two opposing categories Nagarjuna writes that they make no distinction?

Because the Buddhadharma is different from the world’s ordinary methods of understanding, since Buddhism is seen as “coming to see” and “coming to realize for oneself”, it is not possible to use the ordinary views of the Buddha. mundane but can understand the nature of Nirvana. The Buddha affirmed that: “The Tathagata was born in this world, raised in…


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